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It is typically released to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide at BWRs, and methane at PWRs., radioactive carbon dioxide.The gas mixes rapidly and becomes evenly distributed throughout the atmosphere (the mixing timescale in the order of weeks).Carbon dioxide also dissolves in water and thus permeates the oceans, but at a slower rate.has been estimated to be roughly 12 to 16 years in the northern hemisphere.Liquid scintillation counting is the preferred method.during his tenure as a professor at the University of Chicago.
Carbon-14 is produced in the upper layers of the troposphere and the stratosphere by thermal neutrons absorbed by nitrogen atoms.
However, open-air nuclear testing between 1955–1980 contributed to this pool.
The different isotopes of carbon do not differ appreciably in their chemical properties.
Production rates vary because of changes to the cosmic ray flux caused by the heliospheric modulation (solar wind and solar magnetic field), and due to variations in the Earth's magnetic field.
The latter can create significant variations in The New Zealand curve is representative for the Southern Hemisphere, the Austrian curve is representative for the Northern Hemisphere.
The fraction of the radiation transmitted through the dead skin layer is estimated to be 0.11.